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Haloalkanes and Haloarenes Class 12


Haloalkanes and haloarenes are organic compounds in which the hydrogen atom has been replaced with a halogen atom. The result is an alkyl or aryl halide. Haloalkanes are alkyl halides; haloarenes are aryl halides. Halogen atoms can be quickly introduced to hydrocarbons by several different methods. One method is Groove’s method, which uses ZnC12 to weaken the C-OH bond in a hydrocarbon. However, this method does not apply to 3deg alcohols. Halogen acids, like HCl, are reactive to alkyl groups and hydrogen.


Haloalkanes and calories are hydrocarbons with a halogen atom attached to the carbon atom. They undergo the usual electrophilic substitution reactions. As a result, they are flammable and toxic gases. Their chemical formula is CH3CN.

Haloalkanes and calories Class 12 notes cover their synthesis and physical properties. Students should learn about these compounds’ chemical and physical properties and how they are used in everyday life. For example, they can be found in air conditioning systems and refrigerators.


Haloalkanes and calories are organic compounds in which a halogen atom has been attached to a carbon atom. These compounds are classified into two groups: primary and secondary halides. The halogen atom has a slight negative charge, while the carbon atom carries a positive charge. This bond is a polar covalent one, meaning it is very stable.

Haloalkanes and calories have different boiling points, and their boiling points are higher than those of their hydrocarbon parent. Haloarenes are not as explosive as hydrocarbons, and their melting and boiling points are relatively high. They are less volatile than hydrocarbons, and their dipole moment decreases from methyl chloride to methyl bromide to methyl iodide. They are generally colorless and are soluble in organic solvents but insoluble in water.

SN1 reaction

In the SN1 reaction of haloalkanes and haloarenes class 12, a carbon halide undergoes a transient transformation involving forming a product, an intermediate, and a carbon atom. The reaction rate depends on the concentration of the carbon substrate but not on the presence or absence of an attacking nucleophile. A protic solution is best suited for this reaction. This is because aprotic solvents generally contain nucleophilic groups that attack the carbon cation intermediate.

The SN1 reaction of haloalkanes and haloarenes takes place in a single step. First, the leaving group forms a carbocation, which is then attacked by the nucleophile, yielding the product. The rate of the SN1 reaction depends on several factors, including the carbon atom’s electrophilicity and the solvent’s nature.

Solubility in water

Haloalkanes and haloarenes, also known as aromatic hydrocarbons, are relatively insoluble in water. This is because they have less polarity than water, which makes them less soluble. In addition, the hydrogen bonds between these compounds and water molecules are weaker than those between the haloalkanes and water molecules. Therefore, these compounds must be separated from the water molecules in soluble water. This requires a high amount of energy to break the bonds. Thus, the haloalkanes and arenes class 12 are poorly soluble in water.

Haloalkanes and haloarenes are highly reactive with the electrophile due to their halo ring. Moreover, they are ortho and para-directing toward electrophilic substitution reactions. This means that they develop a partial negative charge only at the ortho and para positions of the benzene ring. The electron density is higher at the ortho and para positions.

Reaction rate

Haloalkanes are organic compounds with more than one halogen atom. As the number of halogen atoms increases, so does the compound’s boiling point. This is because the halogen atoms in the compound have higher atomic masses, and thus, van der Waals forces of attraction decrease. This makes the boiling points of haloalkanes and their isomeric derivatives higher than those of their parent hydrocarbons.

Haloalkanes are organic compounds that are produced by marine organisms. They are also known to possess medicinal properties. Haloarenes have an unusual structure that involves the conjugation of the p-electrons of the benzene ring with a halogen atom. This leads to resonance and a partial double bond in the C-X bond. Haloarenes are less reactive than nucleophiles, so their reaction rate is lower than that of haloalkanes.

Ambident nucleophiles

Haloalkanes and haloalkanes are a class of organic compounds with ambident nucleophiles containing two nucleophilic centers. One nucleophile attacks the carbon atom, the other the nitrogen atom. These two atoms can then react to form different compounds.

Haloalkanes are insoluble in water, allowing them to undergo nucleophilic substitution reactions with cyanide or other ambident nucleophiles. The resulting alkyl or aryl halide is formed. The halide group is removed from the a-carbon, and the hydrogen atom is removed from the b-carbon. This process is called a bimolecular nucleophilic substitution (SN2).